توزیع مکانی ناامنی غذایی در مناطق شهری و روستایی ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار گروه اقتصادکشاوزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

10.22034/iaes.2022.540824.1881

چکیده

ناامنی غذایی به مفهوم دسترسی محدود یا نامطمئن به غذای کافی و سالم از نظر تغذیه‌ای یا توانایی محدود برای دستیابی به غذا از راه‌های مقبول اجتماعی است. آسیب دیدن وضعیت سلامت جسمی و ذهنی و ابتلا به بیماری‌های مزمن از پیامدهای بالقوه ناامنی غذایی است. لذا در مطالعه حاضر، با استفاده از اطلاعات خام طرح نمونه‌گیری هزینه و درآمد خانوار، به بررسی وضعیت ناامنی غذایی در مناطق شهری و روستایی استان‌های ایران در سال 1398 پرداخته شد. برای بررسی وضعیت ناامنی غذایی، شاخص FGT محاسبه و مناطق مختلف استان‌ها با توجه به این شاخص‌‌‌ها رتبه‌‌بندی و نهایتاً نقشه ناامنی غذایی تهیه گردید. نتایج شاخص‌های ناامنی غذایی مربوط به دسترسی به میزان کالری و پروتئین مورد نیاز بدن نشان داد که شیوع ناامنی غذایی در مناطق شهری بالاتر از مناطق روستایی است. شیوع ناامنی غذایی در مناطق شهری، از نظر دسترسی به کالری و پروتئین  مورد نیاز بدن به ترتیب 17/42 و 34/37 درصد است. این ارقام برای مناطق روستایی به ترتیب معادل 93/35 و 06/33 درصد می‌باشند. همچنین نتایج  نشان می‌دهد، درصد خانوارهایی که پروتئین را کمتر از میزان مورد نیاز روزانه دریافت می‌کنند، کمتر از خانوارهایی است که به حداقل کالری مورد نیاز بدن دسترسی ندارند. بنابراین با توجه به نتایج مطالعه حاضر، پیشنهاد می‌شود تدوین و اجرای سیاست‌های کلان کشور در راستای کاهش ناامنی غذایی، به‌ویژه استان‌هایی که در وضعیت نامطلوبتری قرار دارند، مورد توجه قرار گیرد. همچنین پایش وضعیت تغذیه جامعه از راه جمع‌آوری اطلاعات دوره‌ای، تثبیت قیمت مواد غذایی، بررسی روند تغییرات ناامنی غذایی در سطح کلان و در سطح استان‌ها و گزارش به مسئولان مربوطه می‌تواند آنان را در برنامه‌ریزی برای ارتقا سلامت قشرهای مختلف جامعه یاری رساند.

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