بررسی تاثیر سیاستهای قیمتی و سرمایه گذاری در فن‏آوریهای آب اندوزو بر کسری مخازن آب زیرزمینی و هزینه‌های اجتماعی در استان خراسان رضوی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی بخش تحقیقات اقتصادی، اجتماعی و ترویج کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران.

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه زابل ، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه اقتصاد

3 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، دانشکده کشاورزی بخش اقتصاد کشاورزی

4 گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

10.22034/iaes.2018.88115.1601

چکیده

به منظور مقایسه تاثیر سیاست قیمت‏گذاری آب با سیاست افزایش راندمان آبیاری و سرمایه‏گذاری در تکنولوژی‏های آب اندوز، بر روی کاهش کسری مخازن آب‌های زیرزمینی، میزان تولید، خالص واردات، خالص منافع اجتماعی و درآمد کشاورزان در سال زراعی 92-91 در استان خراسان رضوی، پنج شهرستان شامل: مشهد، سبزوار، نیشابور، تربت جام و تربت حیدریه انتخاب و تاثیر این سیاست‏ها با استفاده از نوعی مدل برنامه‌ریزی ریاضی مثبت (PMP_GME) بررسی گردید. بررسی تاثیر افزایش قیمت آب نشان داد که هر چند این سیاست در مناطق مختلف نتایج متفاوتی داشته و اجرای آن را غیر ممکن می‏سازد، اما درآمد کشاورزان را بین 19 تا 98 و بطور متوسط 63 درصد کاهش و هزینه‌های اجتماعی را 50 درصد افزایش می‌دهد. بطوری که هزینه هر مترمکعب آب صرفه جویی شده 5750 ریال خواهد بود. با افزایش راندمان انتقال و توزیع آب و بدون افزایش سطح زیر کشت، کسری مخزن بطور متوسط، 83 درصد کاهش می‌یابد. هزینه کشاورزن نیز 300 ریال و هزینه‌های اجتماعی 700 ریال برای هر متر مکعب خواهد بود. اگر کل راندمان آبیاری تا حد پتانسیل آن اصلاح شود کسری مخزن 106 درصد کاهش می‌یابد. اگر افزایش راندمان بدون کنترل سطح زیرکشت باشد اگر چه تولید افزایش می‌یابد اما کسری مخزن در شرایطی افزایش یافته ولیکن بطور متوسط 53 درصد کاهش می‌یابد. جایگزینی سیستم‌های جدید بجای قدیمی و افزایش راندمان آبیاری در حد پتانسیل بدون افزایش سطح زیر کشت، کسری مخزن را 94 درصد کاهش می‌دهد. اما بدون افزایش راندمان مصرف تنها 63 درصد کسری مخزن اصلاح می‌شود. لذا پیشنهاد می‏شود، دولت ضمن نصب کنتورهای هوشمند، در مناطقی که نسبت به افزایش راندمان انتقال و توزیع اقدام می‏کند، میزان برداشت آب از چاه را به میزان افزایش راندمان آبیاری کاهش دهد. همچنین در دشت‏های بحرانی، اعطای تسهیلات برای سیستم‏های نوین آبیاری مشروط به کاهش برداشت آب شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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