ارزیابی کارایی زیست‌محیطی نظام پرورش ماهی در قفس‌های دریایی؛ مطالعه موردی استان مازندران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد اقتصاد کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران

2 گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، داشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشگاه تهران

10.22034/iaes.2019.99704.1657

چکیده

مطالعه حاضر به منظور ارزیابی کارایی زیست‌محیطی سیستم پرورش ماهی در قفس‌های دریایی و ارائه پیشنهاد‌هایی برای کاهش انتشار آلاینده‌ها به اکوسیستم دریایی در سطح استان مازندران انجام شده است. در فصل پرورشی 1395-96 تعداد 9 مزرعه فعال پرورش ماهی در قفس در این استان وجود داشته است که میزان انتشار آلاینده‌ها به محیط آبی در هر یک از این مزارع، با روشی غیر مستقیم ارزیابی شد. بر پایه نتایج، به ازای هر تن ماهی قزل‌آلای تولید شده در قفس‌های پرورش ماهی به طور متوسط 73.979 کیلوگرم نیتروژن، 13.893 کیلوگرم فسفر و 488.353 کیلوگرم کربن به محیط آزاد شده است. نرخ تبدیل غذایی (نسبت غذای داده شده به ماهیان به میزان ماهی تولید شده) نیز بین 0.897-4 با میانگین 1.249 بود که حاکی از تغییرات شدید کارایی تغذیه است. در ادامه با استفاده از رهیافت SBM-DEA به ارزیابی کارایی زیست‌محیطی هر یک از مزارع پرداخته شد. متوسط کارایی زیست‌محیطی مزارع 0.599 بود که نشان از وجود ظرفیت بالقوه بالا برای کاهش میزان انتشار آلاینده‌ها و بهبود عملکرد زیست‌محیطی دارد. بر اساس یافته‌ها ضعف دانش فنی قفس‌داران به خصوص در انتخاب زمان مناسب شروع و پایان دوره و مدیریت تغذیه، میزان آلاینده‌های آزاد شده به محیط را افزایش خواهد داد. لذا پیشنهاد می‌شود که با اعمال سیاست‌های تشویقی، مزارع موفق تجربیات خود را به دیگر مزارع منتقل کنند. این امر می‌تواند از طریق برگزاری دوره‌های آموزشی با بکارگیری مدرسین مجرب و قفس‌داران موفق عملی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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