بررسی و تعیین اولویت های صادراتی محصول رب گوجه فرنگی ایران و مولفه های اثرگذار بر آن

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو دکترا دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران.

3 استاد گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران

4 استادیار گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران

10.22034/iaes.2022.560674.1940

چکیده

نظریه‌های تجارت بین‌الملل بر اهمیت تخصصی شدن کشورها برای بهره‌گیری از شبکه جهانی تجارت و  فواید حاصل از آن تاکید دارند. توسعه صادرات بخش کشاورزی ایران می‌تواند افزون بر ارزآوری، نقش مهمی در تامین امنیت غذایی داشته باشد. یکی از رویکردهای بررسی توسعه صادرات، واکاوی ظرفیت‌های صادراتی ایران از مسیر مزیت نسبی و کارایی صادراتی و تخصصی شدن می‌‌باشد. از این‌رو در پژوهش پیش‌رو، به بررسی ساختار بازار، اولویت‌گذاری بازارهای هدف، وضعیت رقابت قیمتی و کیفیتی، مزیت نسبی و تجاری، بررسی کارایی بازارهای هدف صادراتی با استفاده از رویکرد الگوی جاذبه مرزی تصادفی، خوشه‌بندی بازارهای صادراتی، بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر صادرات رب گوجه فرنگی ایران در چارچوب الگوی جاذبه و بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر کارایی صادراتی رب گوجه فرنگی با استفاده از الگوی پانل پروبیت کسری در دوره زمانی 2020-2001 پرداخته شد. نتایج نشان داد که با وجود بالاتر بودن قیمت صادراتی رب گوجه فرنگی ایران نسبت به میانیگن قیمت جهانی، به دلیل کیفیت بالای این محصول، صادرات ایران از رقابت کیفیتی برخوردار است. بررسی وضعیت الگوی تخصصی شدن، بیانگر افزایشی بودن درجه تخصصی شدن صادرات رب گوجه فرنگی ایران است که در کنار افزایش سهم ایران در بازارهای جهانی، افزایشی بودن کارایی صادراتی، وجود مزیت نسبی در طول دوره بررسی و رقابت کیفیتی، پیشنهاد می‌شود بازارهایی که بیشترین کارایی و مزیت را دارند (که در خوشه‌های 3و 4 قرار دارند)، در اولویت قرار گیرند. همچنین در کشورهای با کارایی صادراتی پایین‌تر با انجام مطالعات موردی دقیق به منظور شناخت کامل و جامع بازارهای هدف، فاصله بین ظرفیت صادراتی و مقدار واقعی صادرات جبران شود و هزینه نفوذ به بازارهای جدید، برای حفظ و تقویت کارایی بازارهایی که ایران موفق به حضور در آنها شده است، صرف شود.

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